Anti-Secretory Agents

Excessive Secretions/Death Rattle

Difficulty clearing upper airway secretions (death rattle) is a problem for half of all dying patients. Treatment often includes the use of anticholinergic drugs, such as scopolamine (also known as hyoscine) or atropine. Transdermal scopolamine has several indications for symptom control in patients with end-stage disease: control of excess salivary secretions, management of terminal secretions, and control of nausea.

Palliat Med. 2002 Sep;16(5):369-74
J Pain Symptom Manage. 2002 Apr;23(4):310-7
Prescrire Int. 2001 Aug;10(54):99-101
Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1990 Oct;103(4):615-8


Drooling is a serious social handicap experienced by some neurologically impaired patients. No one method has been identified to control drooling for all patients, however, anticholinergic drugs have been utilized. In the following case study, transdermal scopolamine was found to be effective for controlling drooling in a traumatic brain-injured patient for whom more conservative methods failed. From a baseline saliva flow rate, saliva flow decreased up to 59%. No significant side effects were observed with treatment, and the decrease in drooling was maintained for a 4-month period. Although transdermal scopolamine may represent one acceptable facet of long-term treatment, it must be stressed that efficacy is variable across patient populations and that treatment approaches must be individualized.

Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 1991 Aug;70(4):220-2

Yemi Omilana